爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第1张

BeautifulSoup

BeautifulSoup是一個模塊,該模塊用於接收一個HTML或XML字符串,然后將其進行格式化,之后遍可以使用他提供的方法進行快速查找指定元素,從而使得在HTML或XML中查找指定元素變得簡單。

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

html_doc = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<div class="title">
<b>The Dormouse's story總共</b>
<h1>f</h1>
</div>
<div class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a class="sister0" id="link1">Els<span>f</span>ie</a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</div>
ad<br/>sf
<p class="story">...</p>
</body>
</html>
"""

soup = BeautifulSoup(html_doc, features="lxml")#features 引擎模式 還有html.parser模式

# 找到第一個a標簽 tag1 = soup.find(name='a')

# 找到所有的a標簽 tag2 = soup.find_all(name='a')
# 找到id=link2的標簽 tag3 = soup.select('#link2')

1.安裝

pip3 install beautifulsoup4

2.常見用法

1. name,標簽名稱

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第2张
tag = soup.find('a')
name
= tag.name # 獲取獲取標簽名稱
print(name)
tag.name
= 'span' # 設置
print(soup)
View Code

2. attr,標簽屬性

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第4张
# tag = soup.find('a')
# attrs
= tag.attrs # 獲取變遷屬性
# print(attrs)
# tag.attrs
= {'ik':123} # 設置
# tag.attrs[
'id'] = 'iiiii' # 設置
# print(soup)
View Code

3. children,所有子標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第6张
# body = soup.find('body')
# v
= body.children
View Code

4. descendants,所有子子孫孫標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第8张
# body = soup.find('body')
# v
= body.descendants
View Code

5. clear,將標簽的所有子標簽全部清空(保留標簽名)

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第10张
# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.clear()
# print(soup)
View Code

6. decompose,遞歸的刪除所有的標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第12张
# body = soup.find('body')
# body.decompose()
# print(soup)
View Code

7. extract,遞歸的刪除所有的標簽,並獲取刪除的標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第14张
# body = soup.find('body')
# v
= body.extract()
# print(soup)
View Code

8. decode,轉換為字符串(含當前標簽);decode_contents(不含當前標簽)

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第16张
# body = soup.find('body')
# v
= body.decode()
# v
= body.decode_contents()
# print(v)
View Code

9. encode,轉換為字節(含當前標簽);encode_contents(不含當前標簽)

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第18张
# body = soup.find('body')
# v
= body.encode()
# v
= body.encode_contents()
# print(v)
View Code

10. find,獲取匹配的第一個標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第20张
# tag = soup.find('a')
# print(tag)
# tag
= soup.find(name='a', attrs={'class': 'sister'}, recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# tag
= soup.find(name='a', class_='sister', recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# print(tag)
View Code

11. find_all,獲取匹配的所有標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第22张
# tags = soup.find_all('a')
# print(tags)

# tags
= soup.find_all('a',limit=1)
# print(tags)

# tags
= soup.find_all(name='a', attrs={'class': 'sister'}, recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# # tags
= soup.find(name='a', class_='sister', recursive=True, text='Lacie')
# print(tags)


# ####### 列表 #######
# v
= soup.find_all(name=['a','div'])
# print(v)

# v
= soup.find_all(class_=['sister0', 'sister'])
# print(v)

# v
= soup.find_all(text=['Tillie'])
# print(v, type(v[
0]))


# v
= soup.find_all(id=['link1','link2'])
# print(v)

# v
= soup.find_all(href=['link1','link2'])
# print(v)

# ####### 正則 #######
import re
# rep
= re.compile('p')
# rep
= re.compile('^p')
# v
= soup.find_all(name=rep)
# print(v)

# rep
= re.compile('sister.*')
# v
= soup.find_all(class_=rep)
# print(v)

# rep
= re.compile('http://www.oldboy.com/static/.*')
# v
= soup.find_all(href=rep)
# print(v)

# ####### 方法篩選 #######
# def func(tag):
#
return tag.has_attr('class') and tag.has_attr('id')
# v
= soup.find_all(name=func)
# print(v)


# ##
get,獲取標簽屬性
# tag
= soup.find('a')
# v
= tag.get('id')
# print(v)
View Code

12. has_attr,檢查標簽是否具有該屬性

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第24张
# tag = soup.find('a')
# v
= tag.has_attr('id')
# print(v)
View Code

13. get_text,獲取標簽內部文本內容

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第26张
# tag = soup.find('a')
# v
= tag.get_text('id')
# print(v)
View Code

14. index,檢查標簽在某標簽中的索引位置

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第28张
# tag = soup.find('body')
# v
= tag.index(tag.find('div'))
# print(v)

# tag
= soup.find('body')
#
for i,v in enumerate(tag):
# print(i,v)
View Code

15. is_empty_element,是否是空標簽(是否可以是空)或者自閉合標簽,

     判斷是否是如下標簽:'br' , 'hr', 'input', 'img', 'meta','spacer', 'link', 'frame', 'base'

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第30张
# tag = soup.find('br')
# v
= tag.is_empty_element
# print(v)
View Code

16. 當前的關聯標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第32张
# soup.next
# soup.next_element
# soup.next_elements
# soup.next_sibling
# soup.next_siblings

#
# tag.previous
# tag.previous_element
# tag.previous_elements
# tag.previous_sibling
# tag.previous_siblings

#
# tag.parent
# tag.parents
View Code 

17. 查找某標簽的關聯標簽

爬蟲之BeautifulSoup和幾個自動登錄示例 -开发者知识库,第34张
# tag.find_next(...)
# tag.find_all_next(...)
# tag.find_next_sibling(...)
# tag.find_next_siblings(...)

# tag.find_previous(...)
# tag.find_all_previous(...)
# tag.find_previous_sibling(...)
# tag.find_previous_siblings(...)

# tag.find_parent(...)
# tag.find_parents(...)

# 參數同find_all
View Code

18. select,select_one, CSS選擇器

soup.select("title")

soup.select("p nth-of-type(3)")

soup.select("body a")

soup.select("html head title")

tag = soup.select("span,a")

soup.select("head > title")

soup.select("p > a")

soup.select("p > a:nth-of-type(2)")

soup.select("p > #link1")

soup.select("body > a")

soup.select("#link1 ~ .sister")

soup.select("#link1 .sister")

soup.select(".sister")

soup.select("[class~=sister]")

soup.select("#link1")

soup.select("a#link2")

soup.select('a[href]')

soup.select('a[href="http://example.com/elsie"]')

soup.select('a[href^="http://example.com/"]')

soup.select('a[href$="tillie"]')

soup.select('a[href*=".com/el"]')


from bs4.element import Tag

def default_candidate_generator(tag):
for child in tag.descendants:
if not isinstance(child, Tag):
continue
if not child.has_attr('href'):
continue
yield child

tags = soup.find('body').select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator)
print(type(tags), tags)

from bs4.element import Tag
def default_candidate_generator(tag):
for child in tag.descendants:
if not isinstance(child, Tag):
continue
if not child.has_attr('href'):
continue
yield child

tags = soup.find('body').select("a", _candidate_generator=default_candidate_generator, limit=1)
print(type(tags), tags)

19. 標簽的內容  

# tag = soup.find('span')
# print(tag.string) # 獲取
# tag.string = 'new content' # 設置
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find('body')
# print(tag.string)
# tag.string = 'xxx'
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find('body')
# v = tag.stripped_strings # 遞歸內部獲取所有標簽的文本
# print(v)

20.append在當前標簽內部追加一個標簽  

# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.append(soup.find('a'))
# print(soup)
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i',attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一個新來的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.append(obj)
# print(soup)

21.insert在當前標簽內部指定位置插入一個標簽  

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一個新來的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# tag.insert(2, obj)
# print(soup)

22. insert_after,insert_before 在當前標簽后面或前面插入

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一個新來的'
# tag = soup.find('body')
# # tag.insert_before(obj)
# tag.insert_after(obj)
# print(soup)

23. replace_with 在當前標簽替換為指定標簽

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj = Tag(name='i', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj.string = '我是一個新來的'
# tag = soup.find('div')
# tag.replace_with(obj)
# print(soup)

24. 創建標簽之間的關系

# tag = soup.find('div')
# a = soup.find('a')
# tag.setup(previous_sibling=a)
# print(tag.previous_sibling)

25. wrap,將指定標簽把當前標簽包裹起來  

# from bs4.element import Tag
# obj1 = Tag(name='div', attrs={'id': 'it'})
# obj1.string = '我是一個新來的'
#
# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.wrap(obj1)
# print(soup)

# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.wrap(soup.find('p'))
# print(soup)

26. unwrap,去掉當前標簽,將保留其包裹的標簽

# tag = soup.find('a')
# v = tag.unwrap()
# print(soup)

更多參數官方:http://beautifulsoup.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/v4.4.0/

自動登陸示例

1.抽屜新熱榜

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import requests


# ############## 方式一 ##############
"""
# ## 1、首先登陸頁面,獲取cookie
i1 = requests.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")
i1_cookies = i1.cookies.get_dict()

# ## 2、用戶登陸,攜帶上一次的cookie,后台對cookie中的 gpsd 進行授權
i2 = requests.post(
url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
data={
'phone': "8615131255089",
'password': "xxooxxoo",
'oneMonth': ""
},
cookies=i1_cookies
)

# ## 3、點贊(只需要攜帶已經被授權的gpsd即可)
gpsd = i1_cookies['gpsd']
i3 = requests.post(
url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589523",
cookies={'gpsd': gpsd}
)

print(i3.text)
"""


# ############## 方式二 ##############
"""
import requests

session = requests.Session()
i1 = session.get(url="http://dig.chouti.com/help/service")
i2 = session.post(
url="http://dig.chouti.com/login",
data={
'phone': "8615131255089",
'password': "xxooxxoo",
'oneMonth': ""
}
)
i3 = session.post(
url="http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=8589523"
)
print(i3.text)

"""

抽屜新熱榜

2.GitHub

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

# ############## 方式一 ##############
#
# # 1. 訪問登陸頁面,獲取 authenticity_token
# i1 = requests.get('https://github.com/login')
# soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, features='lxml')
# tag = soup1.find(name='input', attrs={'name': 'authenticity_token'})
# authenticity_token = tag.get('value')
# c1 = i1.cookies.get_dict()
# i1.close()
#
# # 1. 攜帶authenticity_token和用戶名密碼等信息,發送用戶驗證
# form_data = {
# "authenticity_token": authenticity_token,
# "utf8": "",
# "commit": "Sign in",
# "login": "wupeiqi@live.com",
# 'password': 'xxoo'
# }
#
# i2 = requests.post('https://github.com/session', data=form_data, cookies=c1)
# c2 = i2.cookies.get_dict()
# c1.update(c2)
# i3 = requests.get('https://github.com/settings/repositories', cookies=c1)
#
# soup3 = BeautifulSoup(i3.text, features='lxml')
# list_group = soup3.find(name='div', class_='listgroup')
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
#
# for child in list_group.children:
# if isinstance(child, Tag):
# project_tag = child.find(name='a', class_='mr-1')
# size_tag = child.find(name='small')
# temp = "項目:%s(%s); 項目路徑:%s" % (project_tag.get('href'), size_tag.string, project_tag.string, )
# print(temp)



# ############## 方式二 ##############
# session = requests.Session()
# # 1. 訪問登陸頁面,獲取 authenticity_token
# i1 = session.get('https://github.com/login')
# soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, features='lxml')
# tag = soup1.find(name='input', attrs={'name': 'authenticity_token'})
# authenticity_token = tag.get('value')
# c1 = i1.cookies.get_dict()
# i1.close()
#
# # 1. 攜帶authenticity_token和用戶名密碼等信息,發送用戶驗證
# form_data = {
# "authenticity_token": authenticity_token,
# "utf8": "",
# "commit": "Sign in",
# "login": "wupeiqi@live.com",
# 'password': 'xxoo'
# }
#
# i2 = session.post('https://github.com/session', data=form_data)
# c2 = i2.cookies.get_dict()
# c1.update(c2)
# i3 = session.get('https://github.com/settings/repositories')
#
# soup3 = BeautifulSoup(i3.text, features='lxml')
# list_group = soup3.find(name='div', class_='listgroup')
#
# from bs4.element import Tag
#
# for child in list_group.children:
# if isinstance(child, Tag):
# project_tag = child.find(name='a', class_='mr-1')
# size_tag = child.find(name='small')
# temp = "項目:%s(%s); 項目路徑:%s" % (project_tag.get('href'), size_tag.string, project_tag.string, )
# print(temp)  

3.知乎

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import time

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

session = requests.Session()

i1 = session.get(
url='https://www.zhihu.com/#signin',
headers={
'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36',
}
)

soup1 = BeautifulSoup(i1.text, 'lxml')
xsrf_tag = soup1.find(name='input', attrs={'name': '_xsrf'})
xsrf = xsrf_tag.get('value')

current_time = time.time()
i2 = session.get(
url='https://www.zhihu.com/captcha.gif',
params={'r': current_time, 'type': 'login'},
headers={
'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36',
})

with open('zhihu.gif', 'wb') as f:
f.write(i2.content)

captcha = input('請打開zhihu.gif文件,查看並輸入驗證碼:')
form_data = {
"_xsrf": xsrf,
'password': 'xxooxxoo',
"captcha": 'captcha',
'email': '424662508@qq.com'
}
i3 = session.post(
url='https://www.zhihu.com/login/email',
data=form_data,
headers={
'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36',
}
)

i4 = session.get(
url='https://www.zhihu.com/settings/profile',
headers={
'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_10_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/54.0.2840.98 Safari/537.36',
}
)

soup4 = BeautifulSoup(i4.text, 'lxml')
tag = soup4.find(id='rename-section')
nick_name = tag.find('span',class_='name').string
print(nick_name)

知乎

4、博客園

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import re
import json
import base64

import rsa
import requests


def js_encrypt(text):
b64der = 'MIGfMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4GNADCBiQKBgQCp0wHYbg/NOPO3nzMD3dndwS0MccuMeXCHgVlGOoYyFwLdS24Im2e7YyhB0wrUsyYf0/nhzCzBK8ZC9eCWqd0aHbdgOQT6CuFQBMjbyGYvlVYU2ZP7kG9Ft6YV6oc9ambuO7nPZh bvXH0zDKfi02prknrScAKC0XhadTHT3Al0QIDAQAB'
der = base64.standard_b64decode(b64der)

pk = rsa.PublicKey.load_pkcs1_openssl_der(der)
v1 = rsa.encrypt(bytes(text, 'utf8'), pk)
value = base64.encodebytes(v1).replace(b'\n', b'')
value = value.decode('utf8')

return value


session = requests.Session()

i1 = session.get('https://passport.cnblogs.com/user/signin')
rep = re.compile("'VerificationToken': '(.*)'")
v = re.search(rep, i1.text)
verification_token = v.group(1)

form_data = {
'input1': js_encrypt('wptawy'),
'input2': js_encrypt('asdfasdf'),
'remember': False
}

i2 = session.post(url='https://passport.cnblogs.com/user/signin',
data=json.dumps(form_data),
headers={
'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=UTF-8',
'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest',
'VerificationToken': verification_token}
)

i3 = session.get(url='https://i.cnblogs.com/EditDiary.aspx')

print(i3.text)

博客園

  

  

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