ios - 圆柱上两点之间的圆柱方向,Scenekit,Quaternions IOS

ios - 圆柱上两点之间的圆柱方向,Scenekit,Quaternions IOS,第1张

我一直在尝试使用SceneKit在球体外缘的两个点之间绘制一个圆柱体。我已经使用原始几何和带有SCNRendering委托的openGL在这两个点之间产生了一条线,但现在我需要在这两个点之间产生一个圆柱体(好吧,不仅仅是两个,而是任何两个位于球体表面的三维矢量) )。我现在已经连续工作了大约3天了,而且我已经完成了实施四元数以实现这一切的所有内容,但就目前而言,我无法理解它工作。学术文章,科学研究,什么都没有,没有什么工作在两个固定点之间重新调整圆柱体。我需要一个算法来做到这一点。

无论如何,这里是我最近的代码,但是这只是一小段近两千行的代码,到目前为止我没有达到预期的结果。我知道我可以转向更先进的东西,比如构建我自己的SCNProgram和/或SCNRenderer然后访问GLSL,OpenGL和Metal复杂性,但这看起来应该可以使用Scenekit并在GLKit向量结构之间转换为SCNVector和从SCNVector转换结构,但到目前为止它是不可能的:

代码:

以下代码摄取经度和纬度坐标并将它们投影到3D球体的表面上。这些坐标通过我构建的专有函数返回,我收到了{x,y,z}坐标的SCNVector3,可以在我的3D球体上准确显示。我在两组经度和纬度坐标之间绘制一条线,其中使用基元绘制的线穿过球体的中心。因此,正如我上面提到的,我想要相同的功能,但是使用圆柱体,而不是线条(顺便说一下,这里列出的经度和纬度坐标是假的,它们是随机生成的,但都落在地球的表面上)。

drawLine = [self lat1:37.76830 lon1:-30.40096 height1:tall lat2:3.97620 lon2:63.73095 height2:tall];

float cylHeight = GLKVector3Distance(SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(cooridnateSetOne.position), SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(coordinateSetTwo.position));

SCNCylinder * cylTest = [SCNCylinder cylinderWithRadius:0.2 height:cylHeight];
SCNNode * test = [SCNNode nodeWithGeometry:cylTest];

SCNMaterial *material = [SCNMaterial material];
[[material diffuse] setContents:[SKColor whiteColor]];
material.diffuse.intensity = 60;
material.emission.contents = [SKColor whiteColor];

material.lightingModelName = SCNLightingModelConstant;
[cylTest setMaterials:@[material]];

GLKVector3 u = SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(cooridnateSetOne.position);
GLKVector3 v = SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(cooridnateSetTwo.position);

GLKVector3 w = GLKVector3CrossProduct(u, v);

GLKQuaternion q = GLKQuaternionMakeWithAngleAndVector3Axis(GLKVector3DotProduct(u,v), GLKVector3Normalize(w));
q.w  = GLKQuaternionLength(q);
q = GLKQuaternionNormalize(q);
SCNVector4 final = SCNVector4FromGLKVector4(GLKVector4Make(q.x, q.y, q.z, q.w));

test.orientation = final;

我试过的其他代码包含了同样的方法,事实上,我甚至在Objective-C中构建了自己的SCNVector3和SCNVector4数学库,看看我的数学方法是否产生了与使用GLKit数学不同的值,但是我用两种方法得到了相同的结果。任何帮助都会很棒,但就目前而言,我并不想跳到比SceneKit更复杂的东西。我不会再潜入Metal和/或OpenGL一两个月。谢谢!

编辑:

变量" cooridnateSetOne"和" cooridnateSetTwo"是另一个函数生成的SCNNode,它强制原始线几何进入此节点,然后将其返回到SCNScene的子类实现。

最佳答案:

6 个答案:

答案 0 :(得分:8)

这是一个使用节点层次结构的快速演示(使圆柱体位于一个点,其长度位于局部z轴上)和一个约束(使z轴看另一个点) 。

let root = view.scene!.rootNode

// visualize a sphere
let sphere = SCNSphere(radius: 1)
sphere.firstMaterial?.transparency = 0.5
let sphereNode = SCNNode(geometry: sphere)
root.addChildNode(sphereNode)

// some dummy points opposite each other on the sphere
let rootOneThird = CGFloat(sqrt(1/3.0))
let p1 = SCNVector3(x: rootOneThird, y: rootOneThird, z: rootOneThird)
let p2 = SCNVector3(x: -rootOneThird, y: -rootOneThird, z: -rootOneThird)

// height of the cylinder should be the distance between points
let height = CGFloat(GLKVector3Distance(SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(p1), SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(p2)))

// add a container node for the cylinder to make its height run along the z axis
let zAlignNode = SCNNode()
zAlignNode.eulerAngles.x = CGFloat(M_PI_2)
// and position the zylinder so that one end is at the local origin
let cylinder = SCNNode(geometry: SCNCylinder(radius: 0.1, height: height))
cylinder.position.y = -height/2
zAlignNode.addChildNode(cylinder)

// put the container node in a positioning node at one of the points
p2Node.addChildNode(zAlignNode)
// and constrain the positioning node to face toward the other point
p2Node.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: p1Node) ]

很抱歉,如果你正在寻找一个特定于ObjC的解决方案,但我在OS X Swift游乐场中对它进行原型制作更快。 (此外,iOS中需要较少的CGFloat转换,因为SCNVector3的元素类型只有Float。)

答案 1 :(得分:5)

仅供参考更优雅的SCNCyclinder实现,以连接具有给定半径的开始和结束位置:

func makeCylinder(from: SCNVector3, to: SCNVector3, radius: CGFloat) -> SCNNode
{
    let lookAt = to - from
    let height = lookAt.length()

    let y = lookAt.normalized()
    let up = lookAt.cross(vector: to).normalized()
    let x = y.cross(vector: up).normalized()
    let z = x.cross(vector: y).normalized()
    let transform = SCNMatrix4(x: x, y: y, z: z, w: from)

    let geometry = SCNCylinder(radius: radius, 
                               height: CGFloat(height))
    let childNode = SCNNode(geometry: geometry)
    childNode.transform = SCNMatrix4MakeTranslation(0.0, height / 2.0, 0.0) * 
      transform

    return childNode
}

需要以下扩展名:

extension SCNVector3 {
    /**
     * Calculates the cross product between two SCNVector3.
     */
    func cross(vector: SCNVector3) -> SCNVector3 {
        return SCNVector3Make(y * vector.z - z * vector.y, z * vector.x - x * vector.z, x * vector.y - y * vector.x)
    }

    func length() -> Float {
        return sqrtf(x*x   y*y   z*z)
    }

    /**
     * Normalizes the vector described by the SCNVector3 to length 1.0 and returns
     * the result as a new SCNVector3.
     */
    func normalized() -> SCNVector3 {
        return self / length()
    }
}

extension SCNMatrix4 {
    public init(x: SCNVector3, y: SCNVector3, z: SCNVector3, w: SCNVector3) {
        self.init(
            m11: x.x,
            m12: x.y,
            m13: x.z,
            m14: 0.0,

            m21: y.x,
            m22: y.y,
            m23: y.z,
            m24: 0.0,

            m31: z.x,
            m32: z.y,
            m33: z.z,
            m34: 0.0,

            m41: w.x,
            m42: w.y,
            m43: w.z,
            m44: 1.0)
    }
}

/**
 * Divides the x, y and z fields of a SCNVector3 by the same scalar value and
 * returns the result as a new SCNVector3.
 */
func / (vector: SCNVector3, scalar: Float) -> SCNVector3 {
    return SCNVector3Make(vector.x / scalar, vector.y / scalar, vector.z / scalar)
}

func * (left: SCNMatrix4, right: SCNMatrix4) -> SCNMatrix4 {
    return SCNMatrix4Mult(left, right)
}

答案 2 :(得分:4)

谢谢你,里克斯特!我已经采取了一些进一步的做法:

class LineNode: SCNNode
{
    init( parent: SCNNode,     // because this node has not yet been assigned to a parent.
              v1: SCNVector3,  // where line starts
              v2: SCNVector3,  // where line ends
          radius: CGFloat,     // line thicknes
      radSegmentCount: Int,    // number of sides of the line
        material: [SCNMaterial] )  // any material.
    {
        super.init()
        let  height = v1.distance(v2)

        position = v1

        let ndV2 = SCNNode()

        ndV2.position = v2
        parent.addChildNode(ndV2)

        let ndZAlign = SCNNode()
        ndZAlign.eulerAngles.x = Float(M_PI_2)

        let cylgeo = SCNCylinder(radius: radius, height: CGFloat(height))
        cylgeo.radialSegmentCount = radSegmentCount
        cylgeo.materials = material

        let ndCylinder = SCNNode(geometry: cylgeo )
        ndCylinder.position.y = -height/2
        ndZAlign.addChildNode(ndCylinder)

        addChildNode(ndZAlign)

        constraints = [SCNLookAtConstraint(target: ndV2)]
    }

    override init() {
        super.init()
    }
    required init?(coder aDecoder: NSCoder) {
        super.init(coder: aDecoder)
    }
 }

我已经在iOS应用中使用此功能成功测试了此类, 它绘制了100行(oops柱面:o)。

    func linesTest3()
    {
        let mat = SCNMaterial()
        mat.diffuse.contents  = UIColor.whiteColor()
        mat.specular.contents = UIColor.whiteColor()

        for _ in 1...100    // draw 100 lines (as cylinders) between random points.
        {
            let v1 =  SCNVector3( x: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50),
                                  y: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50),
                                  z: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50) )

            let v2 =  SCNVector3( x: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50),
                                  y: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50),
                                  z: Float.random(min: -50, max: 50) )

            // Just for testing, add two little spheres to check if lines are drawn correctly:
            // each line should run exactly from a green sphere to a red one:

            root.addChildNode(makeSphere(v1, radius: 0.5, color: UIColor.greenColor()))
            root.addChildNode(makeSphere(v2, radius: 0.5, color: UIColor.redColor()))

            // Have to pass the parentnode because 
            // it is not known during class instantiation of LineNode.

            let ndLine = LineNode(
                         parent: scene.rootNode, // ** needed
                             v1: v1,    // line (cylinder) starts here
                             v2: v2,    // line ends here
                         radius: 0.2,   // line thickness
                radSegmentCount: 6,     // hexagon tube
                       material: [mat] )  // any material

            root.addChildNode(ndLine)
        }
    }

ios - 圆柱上两点之间的圆柱方向,Scenekit,Quaternions IOS,100 random lines,第2张 问候。 (顺便说一句。我只能看到3D物体..我一生中从未见过一条“线”:o)

答案 3 :(得分:2)

这是使用Objective-C

的整个方法

首先,这是你如何使用它:

SCNNode * testNode = [self lat1:-35 lon1:108 height1:tall lat2:-35 lon2:30 height2:0];

输入:

第一个位置 lat1 =第一个位置的纬度 lon1 =第一个位置的经度 height1 =第一个位置距离地球的距离 lat2 =第二个位置的纬度 lon2 =第二个位置的纬度 height2 =第二个位置与地球的距离

第二种方法为上面讨论的每个位置创建SCNVector3点:

-(SCNNode *)lat1:(double)lat1 lon1:(double)lon1 height1:(float)height1 lat2:(double)lat2 lon2:(double)lon2 height2:(float)height2 {
    SCNVector3 positions[] = {[self lat:lat1 lon:lon1 height:height1], [self lat:lat2 lon:lon2 height:height2]};

    float cylHeight = GLKVector3Distance(SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(positions[0]), SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(positions[1]))/4;

    SCNCylinder * masterCylinderNode = [SCNCylinder cylinderWithRadius:0.05 height:cylHeight];

    SCNMaterial *material = [SCNMaterial material];
    [[material diffuse] setContents:[SKColor whiteColor]];
    material.lightingModelName = SCNLightingModelConstant;
    material.emission.contents = [SKColor whiteColor];
    [masterCylinderNode setMaterials:@[material]];

    SCNNode *mainLocationPointNodeTestA = [mainLocationPointNode clone];
    SCNNode *mainLocationPointNodeTestB = [mainLocationPointNode clone];

    mainLocationPointNodeTestA.position = positions[0];
    mainLocationPointNodeTestB.position = positions[1];

    SCNNode * mainParentNode = [SCNNode node];
    SCNNode * tempNode2 =[SCNNode nodeWithGeometry:masterCylinderNode];

    [mainParentNode addChildNode:mainLocationPointNodeTestA];
    [mainParentNode addChildNode:mainLocationPointNodeTestB];
    [mainParentNode addChildNode:tempNode2];

    [mainParentNode setName:@"parentToLineNode"];

    tempNode2.position = SCNVector3Make((positions[0].x positions[1].x)/2, (positions[0].y positions[1].y)/2, (positions[0].z positions[1].z)/2);
    tempNode2.pivot = SCNMatrix4MakeTranslation(0, cylHeight*1.5, 0);

    GLKVector3 normalizedVectorStartingPosition = GLKVector3Make(0.0, 1.0, 0.0);
    GLKVector3 magicAxis = GLKVector3Normalize(GLKVector3Subtract(GLKVector3Make(positions[0].x/2, positions[0].y/2, positions[0].z/2), GLKVector3Make(positions[1].x/2, positions[1].y/2, positions[1].z/2)));

    GLKVector3 rotationAxis = GLKVector3CrossProduct(normalizedVectorStartingPosition, magicAxis);
    CGFloat rotationAngle = GLKVector3DotProduct(normalizedVectorStartingPosition, magicAxis);

    GLKVector4 rotation = GLKVector4MakeWithVector3(rotationAxis, acos(rotationAngle));
    tempNode2.rotation = SCNVector4FromGLKVector4(rotation);

    return mainParentNode;
}

第二种方法使用硬编码数字来表示地球的半径和曲率,我只是为了显示总100%精度所需的数字,这就是它的工作原理。显然,您需要将此更改为场景的正确尺寸,但这是方法。这是http://www.gdal.org/index.html使用的方法的改编。可在此处找到解释:http://www.gdal.org/osr_tutorial.html。我把它放在一起非常快,但它的工作原理和准确性,随意根据自己的喜好更改数字格式。

-(SCNVector3)lat:(double)lat lon:(double)lon height:(float)height {
    double latd = 0.0174532925;
    double latitude = latd*lat;
    double longitude = latd*lon;

    Float64 rad = (Float64)(6378137.0);
    Float64 f = (Float64)(1.0/298.257223563);

    double cosLat = cos(latitude);

    double sinLat = sin(latitude);

    double FF = pow((1.0-f), 2);
    double C = 1/(sqrt(pow(cosLat,2)   FF * pow(sinLat,2)));
    double S = C * FF;

    double x = ((rad * C)*cosLat * cos(longitude))/(1000000/(1 height));
    double y = ((rad * C)*cosLat * sin(longitude))/(1000000/(1 height));
    double z = ((rad * S)*sinLat)/(1000000/(1 height));

    return SCNVector3Make(y globeNode.position.x, z globeNode.position.y, x globeNode.position.z);
}

答案 4 :(得分:0)

我一直在寻找一个在两点之间制作圆柱的解决方案,并且由于 rickster ,我已经使用他的答案来进行SCNNode扩展。在那里,我为可能的气缸方向添加了缺失条件,以避免其错误的相反方向。

func makeCylinder(positionStart: SCNVector3, positionEnd: SCNVector3, radius: CGFloat , color: NSColor, transparency: CGFloat) -> SCNNode
{
    let height = CGFloat(GLKVector3Distance(SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(positionStart), SCNVector3ToGLKVector3(positionEnd)))
    let startNode = SCNNode()
    let endNode = SCNNode()

    startNode.position = positionStart
    endNode.position = positionEnd

    let zAxisNode = SCNNode()
    zAxisNode.eulerAngles.x = CGFloat(M_PI_2)

    let cylinderGeometry = SCNCylinder(radius: radius, height: height)
    cylinderGeometry.firstMaterial?.diffuse.contents = color
    let cylinder = SCNNode(geometry: cylinderGeometry)

    cylinder.position.y = -height/2
    zAxisNode.addChildNode(cylinder)

    let returnNode = SCNNode()

    if (positionStart.x > 0.0 && positionStart.y < 0.0 && positionStart.z < 0.0 && positionEnd.x > 0.0 && positionEnd.y < 0.0 && positionEnd.z > 0.0)
    {
        endNode.addChildNode(zAxisNode)
        endNode.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: startNode) ]
        returnNode.addChildNode(endNode)

    }
    else if (positionStart.x < 0.0 && positionStart.y < 0.0 && positionStart.z < 0.0 && positionEnd.x < 0.0 && positionEnd.y < 0.0 && positionEnd.z > 0.0)
    {
        endNode.addChildNode(zAxisNode)
        endNode.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: startNode) ]
        returnNode.addChildNode(endNode)

    }
    else if (positionStart.x < 0.0 && positionStart.y > 0.0 && positionStart.z < 0.0 && positionEnd.x < 0.0 && positionEnd.y > 0.0 && positionEnd.z > 0.0)
    {
        endNode.addChildNode(zAxisNode)
        endNode.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: startNode) ]
        returnNode.addChildNode(endNode)

    }
    else if (positionStart.x > 0.0 && positionStart.y > 0.0 && positionStart.z < 0.0 && positionEnd.x > 0.0 && positionEnd.y > 0.0 && positionEnd.z > 0.0)
    {
        endNode.addChildNode(zAxisNode)
        endNode.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: startNode) ]
        returnNode.addChildNode(endNode)

    }
    else
    {
        startNode.addChildNode(zAxisNode)
        startNode.constraints = [ SCNLookAtConstraint(target: endNode) ]
        returnNode.addChildNode(startNode)
    }

    return returnNode
}

答案 5 :(得分:0)

我将SCNVector3扩展名与

一起使用
 func cylVector(from : SCNVector3, to : SCNVector3) -> SCNNode {
    let vector = to - from,
        length = vector.length()

    let cylinder = SCNCylinder(radius: cylsRadius, height: CGFloat(length))
    cylinder.radialSegmentCount = 6
    cylinder.firstMaterial = material

    let node = SCNNode(geometry: cylinder)

    node.position = (to   from) / 2
    node.eulerAngles = SCNVector3Make(CGFloat(Double.pi/2), acos((to.z-from.z)/length), atan2((to.y-from.y), (to.x-from.x) ))

    return node
}
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